Raloxifene improves verbal memory in late postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial; Jacobsen DE, Samson MM, Emmelot-Vonk MH, Verhaar HJ; Menopause (Nov 2009)
OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of raloxifene compared with those of placebo on verbal memory, mental processing speed, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. METHODS:: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 213 healthy women 70 years or older was conducted between July 2003 and January 2008 at the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands. Participants were randomly assigned to receive raloxifene (60 mg) or placebo daily for 12 months. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The change in scores from baseline was calculated. The main outcome measures were direct and delayed verbal memory (Groningen 15 Words test), mental processing speed (Trails B test), mood/depression (Geriatric Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 1 and 2), and quality of life (Women's Health Questionnaire and EuroQol-5 dimensional questionnaire). RESULTS:: Direct verbal memory improved significantly with raloxifene compared with placebo: the women receiving raloxifene repeated more words in the words A + B test than did the women receiving placebo (P = 0.025). At 12 months, the change from baseline was 16 words in the raloxifene group and 10 words in the placebo group. In the words A test, direct repetition was also significantly better among women receiving raloxifene than among women receiving placebo (P = 0.023), with the change from baseline in the number of words repeated being nine words in the raloxifene group and six words in the placebo group at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS:: In postmenopausal women, raloxifene gave significantly improved verbal memory when compared with placebo.